wiki:NagareTutorial3

Nagare Tutorial, learning concepts

With a MVC framework, a click on an active HTML element (link, button ...) triggers the following chain of actions:

  1. an URL is sent to the server,
  2. one way or another, the URL is mapped to a controller,
  3. the controller does the action by driving the model,
  4. finally the controller passes the resulting data to the view.

With Nagare, things are different. Indeed, the actions are directly mapped to active nodes of a DOM tree.

Let's see how it works.

Part 3. Add actions

  1. Add active nodes into DOM tree:

Change the default view of your Counter class to add html links (a tags):

...
@presentation.render_for(Counter)
def render(counter, h, *args):
    h << h.div('Value: ', counter.val)

    h << h.a('++')
    h << '|'
    h << h.a('--')

    return h.root

Here, the "lshift" << operator is used to append nodes to the renderer. Then its root node is finally returned.

  1. Bind action to active nodes:

As active nodes, a nodes have a special action() method which is used to bind action to the node. An action can be any callable as, in this case, a bound method:

...
@presentation.render_for(Counter)
def render(counter, h, *args):
    h << h.div('Value: ', counter.val)

    h << h.a('++').action(counter.increase)
    h << '|'
    h << h.a('--').action(counter.decrease)

    return h.root

That's it! Now, you can play with your counter at http://localhost:8080/tutorial.

  1. How does it work?

Nagare handles a HTTP request in two phases:

  • Phase #1: the right state of the application (a previous snapshot of all the application components) is restored. Then the callback manager finds the action from its id and executes it. A new snapshot of the modified components graph is created and stored.
  • Phase #2: the presentation service generates a DOM tree from the different views of the components. The DOM tree is then serialized to HTML and sent back to the browser.

If you look closely at the URL, you will see something like:

?_s=2171996978143275&_c=00011&_action480534548

where:

  • _s: id of the session created for the application,
  • _c: id of the snapshot to use,
  • _actionxxx: id of the action to call.

As you can see the URL are non-significative by default.

With a MVC framework you must always map an URL to an action, even if its result is not a resource (in REST terminology), like the third step of a wizard or a contextual shopping basket.

With Nagare you DON'T HAVE to use significative URL but you totally CAN if you NEED it (see RestfulUrl). Also, non-significative URL with randomized sessions and actions ids improve security.

  1. Back and Fork

Start with a counter at 0, do ten times ++ and see what happens when you use your browser back button 4 times. What do you expect when doing ++ now? 11? 7?

Now open a new tab on -- link, you get one tab with a value of 7 and one tab with a value of 6. Play with the 2 counters, that's right, you've got 2 different counters!

Go to part 2 of this tutorial | Go to part 4 of this tutorial